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Air pollution

The presence in the atmospheric environment of natural and artificial substances that affect human health or well-being, or the well-being of any other specific organism. Pragmatically, air pollution also applies to situations where contaminants impact structures and artifacts or esthetic sensibilities (such as visibility or smell). Most artificial impurities are injected into the atmosphere at or near the Earth's surface. The lower atmosphere (troposphere) cleanses itself of some of these pollutants in a few hours or days as the larger particles settle to the surface and soluble gases and particles encounter precipitation or are removed through contact with surface objects. Unfortunately, removal of some pollutants (for example, sulfates and nitrates) by precipitation and dry deposition results in acid deposition, which may cause serious environmental damage. Also, mixing of the pollutants into the upper atmosphere may dilute the concentrations near the Earth's surface, but can cause long-term changes in the chemistry of the upper atmosphere, including the ozone layer. Atmosphere Troposphere

Types of sources

Sources may be characterized in a number of ways. First, a distinction may be made between natural and anthropogenic sources. Another frequent classification is in terms of stationary (power plants, incinerators, industrial operations, and space heating) and moving (motor vehicles, ships, aircraft, and rockets) sources. Another classification describes sources as point (a single stack), line (a line of stacks), or area (city).

Different types of pollution are conveniently specified in various ways: gaseous, such as carbon monoxide, or particulate, such as smoke, pesticides, and aerosol sprays; inorganic, such as hydrogen fluoride, or organic, such as mercaptans; oxidizing substances, such as ozone, or reducing substances, such as oxides of sulfur and oxide s of nitrogen; radioactive substances, such as iodine-131; inert substances, such as pollen or fly ash; or thermal pollution, such as the heat produced by nuclear power plants.

Air contaminants are produced in many ways and come from many sources; it is difficult to identify all the various producers. Also, for some pollutants such as carbon dioxide and methane, the natural emissions sometimes far exceed the anthropogenic emissions.

Both anthropogenic and natural emissions are variable from year to year, depending on fuel usage, industrial development, and climate. In some countries where pollution control regulations have been implemented, emissions have been significantly reduced. For example, in the United States sulfur dioxide emissions dropped by about 30% between 1970 and 1992, and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were cut by over 30% in the same period. However, in some developing countries emissions continually rise as more cars are put on the road and more industrial facilities and power plants are constructed. In dry regions, natural emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrocarbons can be greatly increased during a season with high rainfall and above-average vegetation growth.

The anthropogenic component of most estimates of the methane budget is about two-thirds. Ruminant production and emissions from rice paddies are regarded as anthropogenic because they result from human agricultural activities. The perturbations to carbon dioxide since the industrial revolution are also principally the result of human activities. These emissions have not yet equilibrated with the rest of the carbon cycle and so have had a profound effect on atmospheric levels, even though emissions from fossil fuel combustion are dwarfed by natural emissions.

Effects

The major concern with air pollution relates to its effects on humans. Since most people spend most of their time indoors, there has been increased interest in air-pollution concentrations in homes, workplaces, and shopping areas. Much of the early information on health effects came from occupational health studies completed prior to the implementation of general air-quality standards.

Air pollution principally injures the respiratory system, and health effects can be studied through three approaches, clinical, epidemiological, and toxicological. Clinical studies use human subjects in controlled laboratory conditions, epidemiological studies assess human subjects (health records) in real-world conditions, and toxicological studies are conducted on animals or simple cellular systems. Of course, epidemiological studies are the most closely related to actual conditions, but they are the most difficult to interpret because of the lack of control and the subsequent problems with statistical analysis. Another difficulty arises because of differences in response among different people. For example, elderly asthmatics are likely to be more strongly affected by sulfur dioxide than the teenage members of a hiking club. Epidemiology

Damage to vegetation by air pollution is of many kinds. Sulfur dioxide may damage field crops such as alfalfa and trees such as pines, especially during the growing season. Both hydrogen fluoride (HF) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in high concentrations have been shown to be harmful to citrus trees and ornamental plants, which are of economic, importance in central Florida. Ozone and ethylene are other contaminants that cause damage to certain kinds of vegetation.

Air pollution can affect the dynamics of the atmosphere through changes in longwave and shortwave radiation processes. Particles can absorb or reflect incoming short-wave solar radiation, keeping it from the Earth's surface during the day. Greenhouse gases can absorb long-wave radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide, methane, fluorocarbons, nitrous oxides, ozone, and water vapor are important greenhouse gases. These represent a class of gases that selectively absorb long-wave radiation. This effect warms the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and surface higher than would be found in the absence of an atmosphere (the greenhouse effect). Because the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is rising, there is a possibility that the temperature of the atmosphere will gradually rise, possibly resulting in a general warming of the global climate over a time period of several generations. Greenhouse effect

Researchers are also concerned with pollution of the stratosphere (10–50 km or 6–30 mi above the Earth's surface) by aircraft and by broad surface sources. The stratosphere is important, because it contains the ozone layer, which absorbs part of the Sun's short-wave radiation and keeps it from reaching the surface. If the ozone layer is significantly depleted, an increase in skin cancer in humans is expected. Each 1% loss of ozone is estimated to increase the skin cancer rate 3–6%. Stratosphere

Visibility is reduced as concentrations of aerosols or particles increase. The particles do not just affect visibility by themselves but also act as condensation nuclei for cloud or haze formation. In each of the three serious air-pollution episodes discussed above, smog (smoke and fog) were present with greatly reduced visibility.

Chemistry

Air pollution can be divided into primary and secondary compounds, where primary pollutants are emitted directly from sources (for example, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide) and secondary pollutants are produced by chemical reactions between other pollutants and atmospheric gases and particles (for example, sulfates, ozone). Most of the chemical transformations are best described as oxidation processes. In many cases these secondary pollutants can have significant environmental effects, such as acid rain and smog.

Smog is the best-known example of secondary pollutants formed by photochemical processes, as a result of primary emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources such as transportation and industry as well as natural sources. Energy from the Sun causes the formation of nitrogen dioxide, ozone (O3), and peroxyacetalnitrate, which cause eye irritation and plant damage.

It has been shown that when emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from tall power plant and other industrial stacks are carried over great distances and combined with emissions from other areas, acidic compounds can be formed by complex chemical reactions. In the absence of anthropogenic pollution sources, the average pH of rain is around 5.6 (slightly acidic). In the eastern United States, acid rain with a pH less than 5.0 has been measured and consists of about 65% dilute sulfuric acid, 30% dilute nitric acid, and 5% other acids.

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From McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. The Content is a copyrighted work of McGraw-Hill and McGraw-Hill reserves all rights in and to the Content. The Work is © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
 
 
 
 
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